Rock Your Role is a series examining the “go to” and hot button Scriptures that relate to and help us understand our role as women in the church. Don’t forget to prayerfully consider our three key questions
as you read.
How can you say women aren’t to preach to, teach, or hold authority over men in the church? What about Deborah, Esther, Huldah, Phoebe, Priscilla, and the women at Jesus’ tomb? Didn’t they all preach to men, teach them, or hold authority over them?
That’s one of the arguments often put forth by people who reject what God’s word plainly says about the biblical role of women in the church. And the short answer is very simple: Yes and no, and so what?
But maybe a longer answer would be better.
First of all, there’s a proper way and an improper way to understand Scripture. We want to make sure we understand Scripture the proper way. When we look to Scripture to find out how we should behave – what we should do and not do – we do not look first, or primarily, at the biographies of people in the Bible and what they did or didn’t do, and model ourselves after them.
Broadly speaking, there are two main types of Scripture: descriptive and prescriptive. Descriptive passages describe something that happened: Noah built an ark. Esther became queen. Paul got shipwrecked. These passages simply tell us what happened to somebody. Prescriptive passages are commands or statements to obey. Don’t lie. Share the gospel. Forgive others.
If we wanted to know how to have a godly marriage, for example, we would look at passages like Ephesians 5:22-33, 1 Corinthians 7, and Exodus 20:14,17. These are all passages that clearly tell us what to do and what not to do in order to have a godly marriage.
What we would not do is look at David’s and Solomon’s lives and conclude that polygamy is God’s design for marriage. We would not read about Hosea and assume that God wants Christian men to marry prostitutes. We would not read the story of the woman at the well and think that being married five times and then shacking up with number six is OK with Jesus.
When looking for instruction about the role of women in the church, we look to clear, prescriptive passages which tell us what to do and what not to do, not descriptive passages about various women in the Bible.Tweet
And when looking for instruction about the role of women in the church, we look to clear, prescriptive passages which tell us what to do and what not to do, not descriptive passages about various women in the Bible.
Descriptive passages may support, but never trump, the clear instruction of prescriptive passages.
But just for funzies, let’s take a quick look at these ladies so often trotted out in defense of Christian women disobeying Scripture. (If you’re unclear as to what God’s word says about women’s role in the church, you might want to check out this article and this article before reading further.)
Deborah, Huldah, and Esther:
The very first thing we need to remember about these ladies is that they were under the old (Mosaic) covenant of the Old Testament, not the new (grace) covenant of the New Testament. There are a lot of things about the old covenant that no longer apply to Christians in the New Testament because Christ fulfilled the law of the old covenant (Bacon and poly-cotton blends, anyone?). Likewise, there are things about the new covenant that did not apply under the old covenant (The church? Evangelism? Nowhere to be found in the Old Testament.), or for which there are no reasonable precedents in the Old Testament because the church is a new covenant institution.
None of these women were pastors. None taught men the Scriptures in the church (or even temple) setting. None assumed authority over men in the church (or even the temple).
Deborah was a judge. She decided disputes between Israelites and discussed with Barak battle instructions that God had already revealed to him. When Barak refused to stand up and fight like a man, God used Deborah, a woman, to show him that another woman, Jael, would get the glory for killing Sisera. In a patriarchal society a woman in leadership and a female war hero would not have been seen by men or women as a positive thing, but rather as shaming men who were too cowardly to step up, lead, and protect their women and children.
Huldah was a prophetess. She was sent for during the reign of Josiah when the temple was being repaired and the priests hadn’t even been able to find the book of the law for years. Again, what does it say about the spiritual condition of the most important men in the country – the king and the high priest – when they, in a highly patriarchal society, have to humble themselves and seek out a woman to tell them what God says? Huldah repeated to them what God had told her, and that was it. Since we now have God’s written word and He no longer speaks through direct revelation this way, there is no parallel between Huldah and New Testament women preaching, teaching, and exercising authority.
Esther, under threat of death, couldn’t even talk to her own husband without his permission, so I’m not really sure why people seem to think she exercised any authority over men. In fact, the writer of the book of Esther several times makes a point of saying how obedient she was to Mordecai. Esther wasn’t a spiritual leader, she was a queen. The word “God” isn’t even mentioned in her book, and she certainly didn’t instruct anybody in the Scriptures. Esther is probably one of the weakest examples you could come up with as support for women preaching, teaching, or exercising authority in the church.
The Women at Jesus’ Tomb, Priscilla, and Phoebe
The women at Jesus’ tomb were sort of Old Testament-ish, too, if you think about it. The church didn’t yet exist when they saw Jesus resurrected and ran back to tell the disciples about it. Still, this was not preaching, teaching, or holding authority over the disciples even in a non-church setting. This was a) giving eyewitness testimony of what they had seen and b) carrying a message from Jesus to the disciples. There was no commentary or instruction from the women to the disciples, just a report on what they had seen and a message of where Jesus and the disciples would meet up. And, really, don’t people usually see “messenger boys” (or girls) as subservient to the people they’re carrying messages between?
Priscilla (or Prisca) might be the best known Christian woman in the church era of the New Testament. When people try to use her as an argument for female preachers, teachers, and authority, they usually go to Acts 18:26 which says that she and her husband took Apollos aside and fully explained the gospel to him. This was a private meeting among the three of them, likely in their home over a meal or other casual circumstances, not preaching or teaching in the church. Additionally, the Bible makes absolutely no mention of how much, if any, of the actual “explaining” Priscilla did. It’s quite possible she just sat by as Aquila did the majority of the explaining and contributed only here and there or when Aquila forgot something.
Phoebe is mentioned once in the New Testament, in Romans 16:1-2. Paul commends her to the church at Rome and asks them to help her out because she has been a good servant of the church at Cenchreae. That the word “servant” can also be translated as “deaconess” in no way indicates that Phoebe (or Priscilla or any of the other women mentioned in Romans 16) preached to or taught men or exercised authority over men, despite the fact that male deacons today might do such things. The Greek word diakonos simply means “servant.” Acts 6:1-6 gives us a glimpse at some of the services the early deacons likely provided- “waiting tables” and meeting the physical needs of the believers. The apostles even drew a distinction between their preaching of the word and the need for others to minister to the material needs of the people.
And one more thing about Priscilla, Phoebe, and the other women of Romans 16: Who – under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit – wrote the book of Romans? Paul. Who – under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit – wrote 1 Timothy 2:11-15? Paul. Would the Holy Spirit have led Paul in Romans 16 to praise women who were rebelling against His Word in 1 Timothy 2? Have you ever known God, anywhere in Scripture, to praise people who unrepentantly break His Word? Would it make any sense, logically, for Paul to praise in Romans 16 women who were habitually and rebelliously disobeying his instructions in 1 Timothy 2?
Would it make any sense for Paul to praise in Romans 16 women who were habitually and rebelliously disobeying his instructions in 1 Timothy 2?Tweet
God does not contradict Himself. God’s Word does not contradict itself. If He gives us an explicit command, biographical details of a Bible character’s life do not override that command, and we are to obey it.
While there are numerous, important ways God wants Christian women to serve Him in the church, the Bible is clear that we are not to preach to or teach men or exercise authority over men in the assembly of believers. We are to follow in the footsteps of godly women like Esther, Priscilla, and all the others by humbly submitting to His Word and obeying it.
We are to follow in the footsteps of godly women like Esther, Priscilla, and all the others by humbly submitting to His Word and obeying it.Tweet
Bad Examples of Women Pastors (But Great Examples of Godly Women) by Gabe Hughes
19 thoughts on “Rock Your Role: Oh No She Di-int! Priscilla Didn’t Preach, Deborah Didn’t Dominate, and Esther Wasn’t an Egalitarian”
Reblogged this on Shepherd/Guardian.
And even if Priscilla did teach Apollos, it wasn’t in a church context.
This is excellent. Well done.
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Michelle, I have nominated you for a Liebster Award, a distinction that is given by bloggers to other bloggers in recognition of their voice and influence on this wonderful web of words. You have been an encouragement to me in so many ways, first of all with our “Blog Swap,” but also in your courageous and faithful presence here in the community of bloggers. Here is a link to the details about the Liebster, and I’m hoping that this will be a blessing to you: https://michelemorin.wordpress.com/2015/11/14/chosen/
Thanks so much, Michele! :0)
So does this mean any female bloggers or authors can have only women as their readers lest they “teach” a man anything from the Scriptures? What about women in a Bible study group or Sunday School class–should they not make a comment or a clarifying remark lest it be seen as “teaching” the male teacher or other men in the class? I used to teach in a Christian school which was promoted and supported by churches (in addition to families). These were churches that ardently claimed the Christian school was simply an extension of the local church, much like VBS and Sunday School. Some of my students were actually ‘young men’ and they were definitely under my authority. I suppose I should never had done a class devotional (required 1st hour). And then there are female profs in a Christian college, especially colleges which are supported by a church and its denomination, colleges which are, in reality, an extension of the church. I am probably being seen as contentious and argumentative. Sorry.
I know this can be a confusing and emotionally charged issue. Let me see if I can help out a little. First, I’d encourage you to read my comment to Annie here (scroll way down to the bottom) as she had some similar questions.
“So does this mean any female bloggers or authors can have only women as their readers lest they “teach” a man anything from the Scriptures?”
Nope, in fact, complementarian women bloggers get that question a lot. I’ve written about that here.
“What about women in a Bible study group or Sunday School class–should they not make a comment or a clarifying remark lest it be seen as “teaching” the male teacher or other men in the class?”
No, answering a question is not “teaching,” although if a woman goes beyond simply answering a question, essentially takes over the class, and begins lecturing everybody, that would be inappropriate.
I’m not sure exactly what you mean by a “clarifying remark.” If you mean that the male teacher has said something completely unbiblical (and it’s not a slip of the tongue or something) and nobody else is speaking up, then, yes, a correcting comment made gently, with a humble spirit, and backed up by Scripture is absolutely appropriate. If the teacher says something incorrectly that’s unimportant, it could be let go. There’s also a way to offer clarification in a way that’s not undermining or usurping the teacher. I’ve found that a good way to do that is to ask a question rather than make a statement.
“I used to teach in a Christian school which was promoted and supported by churches (in addition to families). These were churches that ardently claimed the Christian school was simply an extension of the local church, much like VBS and Sunday School. Some of my students were actually ‘young men’ and they were definitely under my authority. I suppose I should never had done a class devotional (required 1st hour). And then there are female profs in a Christian college, especially colleges which are supported by a church and its denomination, colleges which are, in reality, an extension of the church.”
Regardless of what church or denominational leaders say about a Christian school/college being an “extension,” “ministry,” or “outreach” of the church, the fact of the matter is that a Christian school/college is not the same entity as a church. While it is most in keeping with the spirit of Scripture for a man to teach Bible class in a Christian school, a woman is certainly not sinning by teaching any other subjects, nor is it inappropriate for her to give a devotion at the beginning of class. The biblical admonition in 1 Timothy 2:12 applies to the church setting, not to a school, even a Christian school. They are two different entities with two different purposes, parameters, and audiences.
I’d also like to point out that this is not strictly a women’s issue. Men who seek out women for Bible teaching are violating Scripture just as much as a woman who rebels against Scripture by teaching men.
There are thousands of practical scenarios we could go through about women teaching men, but at the end of the day, we ladies have to examine our hearts honestly and ask ourselves: Is it my heart’s desire to do everything I can to obey and submit to Scripture out of love for Christ, or is it my heart’s desire to do what I want to do and either ignore Scripture or twist Scripture to make it fit what I want out of love for myself? That’s ultimately the heart of the matter.
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Michelle, this is the first time I’ve read your blog. One question I have (and I’ll zero in on Esther) is if you took out the idea of anyone having authority over anyone else (and thought of scenarios in the way of one person *influencing* others in a way that allowed God to be in authority)….what is your “take-away” from the account of Esther and King Ahasuerus? What I mean is……what can we glean from Esther’s behavior and the outcome (from your perspective)? How are we to “follow in” Esther’s footsteps (what does that look like to you)?
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Awesome question, Kelly (and welcome to the blog!). Esther is a phenomenal book, and there’s so much we can learn from it (just not that women can be in positions of authority in the church prohibited by the New Testament :0)
First of all, the typology of Christ in Esther – and that God would display this typology through the story of a woman – is so precious. Next, Esther is a wonderful example to Christian women of humility, bravery, dependence on God, trust in God, prayer, self sacrifice and obedience. Finally, Esther is a beautiful picture of the Christian wife in 1 Peter 3:1-6, who conducts herself in a godly way, yet has a husband who is “disobedient to the Word.”
The stories of all of the women in this article are precious and important, and there’s so much we can learn from them, but we have to make sure we’re learning what God intended us to learn from them, not what suits our fancy.
In this blog which I have enjoyed reading, thankyou 🙂 I was, startled to see that you had written that God no longer speaks directly that way (in regards to the section you had written regarding Hulda the prophetess ), because we now have the word. The word of God being Jesus Christ, right!? And it was Jesus Christ through the Power of the Holy Spirit that spoke to me. Took me out of the muck & the mire and set My feet firm upon a rock. He spoke to me tenderly . Should a women decide that his word is not capable of speaking directly & clearly. What boundaries do you propose class as direct or indirect? And for me to to say that Jesus didn’t speak to me would suggest that he didn’t save me from my old sinful self to a new creation in him. The Son of God seated at the right hand of the Father.Yes I am with you that Gods word is the infallible word of God. Jesus , He the same yesterday today and forever. I look forward to your thoughts kind Regards, Sam.
I’m not sure I completely understand your comment/question, but I think this article will help. :0)
You’re wrong about Deborah, the heavenly Fathervchose her and she was supposed to go with Barak and Jael was supposed to kill Sierra! Judges 5 says it all!
I’m sorry, but I don’t understand what you think I’m wrong about or what you’re arguing against. Nothing I said about Deborah in the article conflicts with anything you said in your comment.