Nativity Scenes and the Second Commandment

Originally published December 10, 2019

Have you ever heard someone say that nativity scenes, Christmas ornaments, Christmas pageants, and other Christmas items or activities which portray the baby Jesus (with a figurine, a doll, a live baby, pictures, etc.) break the second Commandment even though the portrayal of the baby Jesus isn’t being worshiped?

Some of my brothers and sisters in Christ believe that any representation of Jesus – be it in a manger scene, a painting, a movie, pictures of Jesus in children’s Bibles, flannelgraphs, Bible story pictures used for teaching children or on the mission field, etc. – violates the second Commandment…

You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments. Exodus 20:4-6

…whether or not that representation of Jesus is being worshiped. It is the mere act of making or displaying the representation which breaks the Commandment.

This is not something any church I’ve ever been a member of has taught, but because I’ve heard this point of doctrine from theologically sound friends I respect, I wanted to take a closer look at the pertinent Scriptures to make sure I wasn’t doing something wrong. I’ve had nativity scenes and children’s Bibles and used flannelgraphs and been in Christmas musicals that depict Jesus all my life and never gave it a second thought. But if having and doing those things conflicts with Scripture, I want to stop.

But, having examined the Scriptures in context, while I respect and admire my friends’ desire to honor the Lord by not using representations of Him, I simply don’t find that the Bible prohibits occasionally depicting Jesus in reverent, not-for-the-purpose-of-worship ways. Here’s why:


Consider the macro-context of Exodus 20. What was going on in the history and culture of Israel at that time? God was setting Israel apart from other nations as His own special possession and establishing Israel as a nation. And what was the preeminent characteristic that was to set Israel apart from the pagan nations? Israel was to be a witness to all the nations of the one true God. They were not to worship idols (which, at that time, were generally carved figures of created things). Not instead of God. Not in addition to God. Not at all. The second Commandment is a command not to worship carved figures as idols.


Examine the immediate context of Exodus 20:4-6. It follows verses 1-3, which establish the supremacy of God above all other gods, and specifically state that Israel is not to worship any other gods.


Take a close look at the content of Exodus 20:4-6. The passage doesn’t say anything about making a representation of God Himself. Jesus had not yet been born when this was written, so this passage could not have been talking about making a representation of Jesus. It talks about making representations of created things in the sky (planets, the sun, etc.), on the earth, and in the water, and worshiping them. And certainly, calling any graven images “God” and worshiping them as God would also be prohibited (Remember the golden calf incidents?)


It would seem to me that to be consistent in saying “no representations of Jesus” folks who hold to this belief would also have to say “no representations of anything” because what Exodus 20:4 plainly says is “you shall not make for yourself…any likeness of anything.” No photographs of anything, no drawings, paintings, or sculpture of anything, no Xeroxing anything, nothing. In fact, I think that would be closer to the actual wording of the passage than “no representations of Jesus,” which, again, this passage does not mention.


The cross references I found for Exodus 20:4 are Leviticus 26:1, Deuteronomy 27:15, and Psalm 97:7. All of them refer to idol worship.


There are at least two occasions in the Old Testament in which God instructs Moses to make a graven figure, and both of these instances are far more conducive to actual worship of the figures than a nativity scene or a Sunday School flannelgraph.

The first instance – just five chapters after the second Commandment – is found in God’s instructions for the Ark of the Covenant. God instructs Moses to have the people make two cherubim (angels) for the mercy seat (lid) of the Ark. They were not to worship the cherubim (or the Ark), but the Ark was the holiest object used in Israel’s worship ceremonies. It would have been easy for the people to cross the line and worship it or the cherubim, yet God commanded the making of these not-for-worship figures to point the people to Him. (And guess what was put into the Ark right underneath those graven figures? The two tablets of the 10 Commandments, including the second Commandment.)

The second instance was when God instructed Moses to make the bronze serpent. Anyone who had been fatally snake-bitten could look up at the serpent and his life would be spared. How much more likely would an Israelite have been to worship the bronze serpent, commissioned by God and instrumental in saving his life than we are to worship a picture of Jesus in a children’s Bible? Jesus Himself said that this graven figure pointed ahead to His death on the cross, using it as an illustration of His crucifixion. Much like a nativity scene is an illustration of His incarnation.

Now, if God Himself commissioned the casting of these figures of created things, not to be worshiped, but as tools to point people to Himself, would it stand to reason that He would prohibit reverent representations of Christ that point to or teach about Him? Comparing the second Commandment with these two instances of graven figures demonstrates to us that God expects His people to be able to distinguish between using objects as tools or illustrations that point to Him and worshiping those objects.

In the end, this issue is an issue of Christian liberty. It is not a sin nor a violation of the second Commandment to use occasional reverent representations of Christ to point people to Him. It is also not a sin to desire to honor the Lord by refraining from using representations of Christ and finding other ways to point people to Him. Whichever side of the issue we come down on, let us make sure we are respectful and loving to those on the other side, not making a law for them where no law exists, nor accusing one side of sin or the other of legalism.

Additional Resources:

When We Understand the Text Podcast (at the 13:36 mark)

9 thoughts on “Nativity Scenes and the Second Commandment”

  1. Excellent article. Thank you for putting things into a proper Biblical perspective, as usual.

    I wonder how many remember, though, that the bronze serpent was worshipped in the end?
    [2 Kings 18:4 NKJV] He removed the high places and broke the [sacred] pillars, cut down the wooden image and broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made; for until those days the children of Israel burned incense to it, and called it Nehushtan.
    With our fallen human natures we will always stumble at some point…


    1. True, but a) most of God’s people were not guilty of the sin of worshiping the bronze serpent, b) the fact that some people sinned and did worship it didn’t make it wrong for those who didn’t worship it to have it, and c) the fact that some people sinned and worshiped it didn’t make God sinful or wrong for commissioning its creation.


      1. absolutely true on all counts!! 🙂 My only point was that there is nothing that when man touches it he won’t turn it into sin at some point, and we all as individuals have turned something good into a sin in our own lives at least once. Part of the curse.


  2. Michelle, I appreciate your attempt to consider scripture and be gracious in your disagreement, but I do not think you have properly represented the historically reformed position on images of the incarnate Christ being a violation of God’s 2nd commandment.

    Here is the best summary of the counter-argument to the position you held here. I commend it to you to listen to and consider what he says. We’re still friends even if you disagree, though!


    1. Hi Michael- Thanks so much for this resource, and I certainly commend it to my readers. Just a point of clarification, I wasn’t attempting to present an exhaustive exposition of the historically Reformed position on this. I was only attempting to present the main point, or “bottom line,” of the position (that nativity scenes are a 2nd Commandment violation) and offer a biblical refutation. Additionally, what I’ve described regarding the 2CV is the way it has been described to me by Presbyterian friends well-versed in their denominational doctrine. I hope I haven’t misunderstood them and that they didn’t explain it to me incorrectly. Thanks again, my friend! :0)


      1. Sure, sister! I just think the bottom line wasn’t explained here. I’m sorry your presby fans missed that. To summarize the bottom line (but I really commend the teaching I shared), the violation is due to the following:

        1. Because Christ is one person with two natures that are inseparable, images of the incarnate Christ cannot be divorced from his deity. Thus, to make an image of the earthly Jesus is to make an image of God, a violation of the second commandment.
        2. The argument that “we are not worshipping the image” fails because how can you NOT worship Jesus? How can you look at a representation of Jesus and not worship it?

        That’s a summary and compelled me to believe that it is sin to have images of the incarnate Lord. I do enjoy having the friendly conversations though and being able to read your insights and share mine.


      2. And I would just gently respond:

        1. I answered this in #3

        2. Easy, you just don’t. Looking at something does not equal worshiping it. When I look at the figurine of Jesus in my nativity scene, I am no more worshiping it than I’m worshiping my couch when I look at it. If looking at something equaled worshiping it, why would God have commissioned the cherubim on the ark or the bronze serpent, especially when He commanded people to look at the serpent to be healed?


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